Salbutamol/Albuterol Brand And Generic Names
Albuterol/Salbutamol Dosage form
Concentrate for preparing solution for infusion, syrup, coated tablets, tablets with prolonged action
What is Albuterol/Salbutamol?
Bronchodilator. At therapeutic doses the drug has a pronounced stimulating action on beta 2-adrenergic receptors in bronchi, blood vessels and myometrium, virtually having no effect on beta1-adrenergic receptors of the heart. Albuterol/Salbutamol inhibits early and late bronchial reactivity showing a pronounced effect of bronchodilators and stopping bronchospasm, reduces the resistance in the airways, increases the VC. This medication has positive effect on mucociliary clearance; it stimulates mucus secretion, activates the function of the ciliated epithelium, inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells and basophils, prevents the development of allergen-induced bronchospasm. It may cause a reduction in the number of beta-adrenergic receptors, including lymphocytes. This agent has a number of metabolic effects: it reduces the concentration of K+ in the plasma, affects glycogenolysis and insulin release, has a hyperglycemic (especially in patients with bronchial asthma) and lipolytic effect, increases the risk of acidosis. At the recommended therapeutic doses it does not adversely affect the cardiovascular system, does not cause increase in blood pressure, and has a positive chronotropic and inotropic effects to a lesser extent compared to the drugs of this group. It also causes dilation of the coronary arteries, reduces the tone and contractile activity of the myometrium. The effect starts in 30 min after intake, max – in 2 hours with the reception of syrup and 2-3 hours with the reception of pills. Due to the gradual release of the active substance through the coating of tablets, long-acting forms of the drug provide a plasma concentration necessary to maintain the therapeutic effect for 12-14 hrs.
Used in bronchospastic syndrome, bronchial asthma (including nocturnal) - prevention of chronic bronchitis, emphysema. Parenterally - bronchospastic syndrome. Parenterally with a subsequent transition to ingestion - threatening preterm labor with the advent of contractile activity; isthmic-cervical insufficiency, fetal bradycardia (depending on uterine contractions in the uterine cervix opening periods and expulsion); operation on the pregnant uterus (the imposition of a circular suture with the lack of internal os of uterus).
Hypersensitivity, pregnancy (when used as a bronchodilator), lactation, children (under 6 years - for tablets, under 2 years - for oral solution and syrup). For intravenous introduction as a tocolytic (optional) - infection of the birth canal, intrauterine fetal death, fetal malformations, bleeding in placental abruption, threatening miscarriage (in I-II trimester). Used with care in tachyarrhythmia, severe heart failure, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, pregnancy, lactation, CHD (angina, myocardial infarction), myocarditis, heart defects, aortic stenosis, diabetes, epilepsy, convulsions, gastrointestinal stenosis.
Albuterol/Salbutamol Side effects
Often - palpitations, tachycardia (during pregnancy – in the mother and fetus), headache, tremor, nervous tension, less often - dizziness, insomnia, muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, sweating, rarely - an allergic reactions (hives, skin rash, angioedema swelling, paradoxical bronchospasm, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, arrhythmia, chest pain, hypokalemia, neuropsychiatric disorders (including agitation, disorientation, impaired memory, aggression, panic attacks, hallucinations, suicidal attempts, schizoaffective disorder, retention of urine.
Symptoms of acute poisoning: angina pectoris, tachycardia (with a heart rate less than 200 beats per minute), palpitations, arrhythmia, dizziness, dry mouth, fatigue, headache, hyperglycemia (alternate hypoglycemia), decreased or increased blood pressure, hypokalemia, insomnia, malaise, nausea, nervous tension, cramps, tremor.
Treatment: symptomatic; with an overdose of the drug with tablet forms - gastric lavage. Use cardioselective beta-blockers in tachyarrhythmia (use with caution because of the risk of bronchospasm).
Albuterol/Salbutamol Dosage and administration
Orally: adults and children over 12 years – 2-4 mg 3-4 times a day, if necessary, you may increase the dose to 8 mg 4 times a day. The maximum daily dose - 32 mg. Children of 6-12 years - 2 mg/3-4 times a day, the maximum dose - 24 mg/day; children of 2-6 years - 1-2 mg 3-4 times a day. Sustained-release tablets: adults and children over 12 years – 4-8 mg every 12 hours and the maximum dose - 32 mg/day (16 mg every 12 hours); for children 6-12 years - 4 mg every 12 hours, the maximum dose - 24 mg/day (12 mg every 12 hours). Tablets are swallowed whole without chewing. The course of treatment - 14 days.
Albuterol/Salbutamol Special instructions
High doses of Salbutamol during exacerbation of asthma lead to the fact that each subsequent attack of breathlessness becomes more intense than the previous one. Frequent use of Salbutamol may exacerbate bronchospasm, sudden death, and therefore between taking regular doses of the drug you must take breaks in a few hours (6 hours). Reduction of these intervals can take place only in exceptional cases. The appointment during lactation needs special care (it is not known whether Salbutamol can be found in breast milk). No strictly controlled clinical studies on the teratogenicity of Salbutamol are carried out. In separate studies there was polydactyly in children on the background of mothers taking Salbutamol during pregnancy. Adrenergic bronchodilators may be used during pregnancy because the potential risk to the fetus of placental hypoxemia on the background of uncontrolled asthma is much greater than the risk associated with their use. However, their use during pregnancy requires caution because the drug can cause tachycardia and hyperglycemia in the mother (especially if you have diabetes) and fetus. It can also cause retarder birth, reduced blood pressure, and acute pulmonary edema.
Albuterol/Salbutamol enhances the effect of CNS stimulants, tachycardia in patients with thyrotoxicosis and the likelihood of beats in patients receiving cardiac glycosides. A single administration of Salbutamol reduces the concentration of digoxin on a 10-day treatment with the latter drug (no clinical significance, you should monitor the concentration of digoxin in the blood). Possible increase in heart rate and blood pressure in patients receiving Salbutamol may necessitate dose adjustment of antihypertensive and antianginal drugs. Theophylline and other xanthines increase the risk of tachyarrhythmias; means for inhalation anesthesia, levodopa increase severe ventricular arrhythmias. Theophylline and ephedrine potentiate toxic effects of the drug. MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants, increasing the effect of Salbutamol, can lead to a sharp decrease in blood pressure. It is incompatible (pharmacological antagonism) with nonselective beta-blockers (which must also be considered when applying eye forms of beta- blockers). Simultaneous administration of anticholinergic agents (including inhalants) can increase intraocular pressure.