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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Treatment With Generic & Brand Drugs

SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Also Known As Coronavirus Disease 2019 or COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) that is referred as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a huge threat for humanity that resulted in the 2019 - 2020 coronavirus pandemic as well as the collapse of the global economy. This respiratory disease induced by the virus has been firstly noticed in late 2019 in Wuhan, China but at that time, most people did not even know about its existence. Soon later, in a manner of a few months, it became the huge threat which affected the whole. It then was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020 with hundreds of thousands of COVID-19 cases being reported and thousands of deaths. There is an official version, which is suggesting that the virus has been transmitted to humans from animals and presumably, more specific from bats. In late December of 2019 the virus has been found firstly found in Wuhan, Hubei Province of central China and is believed that this was the source of infection. Chinese government soon tried to stop the spread by entering various different laws such as total lockdown of the Wuhan but despite their efforts, it was not possible to localize and stop the infection spread. As of March 2020, the confirmed infection have already been detected in most countries in the world in more than 180 countries in Australia, America, Europe and obviously Asia. The virus is considered very dangerous and that’s why WHO recognized the situation extremely serious and ended up in the 2019 – 2020 coronavirus pandemic. That’s because COVID-19 is considered to be extremely easily to be transmitted between people. Mainly is happening via respiratory droplets that are being caused when coughing, but it may spread from touching contaminated surfaces and then by touching the face. The virus is extremely dangerous because most people who are getting infected are asymptomatic in the first few days and without realizing they are contagious, they are capable to transmit the virus much easier to other people. The time between exposure and symptom onset is between 2 up to 14 days (5 days in most cases) and that’s enough for the person to transmit it to other people even during the time they are not having any symptoms. Despite being so easily transmitted even by people not having any symptoms of COVID-19 at all, the virus is also having a high mortality rate. COVID-19 seem to be most dangerous for elder people and those suffering from other health conditions, but there are still cases when seemingly young enough people without any other health conditions had a fatal outcome. COVID-19 is just one of the many viruses that can cause diseases in mammals and birds. Coronaviruses are actually an extensive group of viruses which is affecting a wide variety of different animals as well as humans with COVID-19 being considered the most dangerous for humans. When talking about coronaviruses in humans, they were originally being discovered as pathogens of a common cold and they have been firstly discovered many years ago in 1980s. Years later in 2002, people had a shocking outbreak of the first severe coronavirus acute respiratory syndrome, SARS that have been proven in clinics to very quickly developing pneumonia as well as respiratory and renal failure. 13 years after that in 2015, the respiratory syndrome coronavirus known as MERS also appeared in the Middle East and it was called Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus related. 4 years later in late December 2019, in Wuhan, a new strain of coronavirus attacked humanity and this time much harder than any known virus attack in the last 100 years resulting in pandemic and collapse of the global economy. The clinical of these coronaviruses infections has been proven to be somewhat pretty similar and close to the extremely severe variant of the Acute Respiratory Viral Infection (ARVI). The nowadays COVID-19 is the most dangerous virus and that’s because the previous SARS and MERS viruses, despite the fact that they were still dangerous – they were not so infectious. Plus, they were not as difficult to tolerate compared to the newly virus COVID-19 and it resulted in much less amount of death, much less people getting contaminated and without an overall economical crisis and without millions and perhaps billions of people being isolated.

Treatment For Coronavirus

Taking in consideration all the chaos, economic crisis and panic the newly coronavirus – COVID-19 is responsible for, is quite obvious that a treatment must be created as soon as possible. This is a new form of virus and it requires new solutions or at least, not all old solutions have been tried to discover how helpful they are against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Advanced laboratories all around the world are daily working on a drug search that may help treating coronavirus. Those laboratories already managed to decipher the genome of the COVID-19 virus and develop a vaccine against it, however, the vaccine still has to pass a series of tests until the vaccine is going to be proven effective and safe. The scientists working for finding a coronavirus treatment have tested the effects of already existing antiviral products on 2019-nCoV. So far, there have been found 30 different medicines and drugs of traditional as well as alternative medicine that are having a necessary antiviral effect which helps against this virus. Among all of those drugs, there have been found pretty popular antiviral drugs as well as some rarely used agents which seem to be helpful. Out of them all, the most recent researches have proven that the drugs which seem to be pretty cheap and have been around for at least 50 years seem to be very helpful against COVID-19 in preventing and treating it. There may be other drugs that would appear sooner or later, but so far, the biggest efficiency of treating coronavirus shows Chloroquine (generic Aralen) and even better is Hydroxychloroquine (generic Plaquenil) as they are preventing the viral to entry into the host cell which allows for the treatment and prevention.

Official Data About Possible Treatment of COVID-2019

There is a lot of official data about coronavirus as well as possible treatment of COVID-19 or also called 2019-nCoV and in all that information you may get confused. You would find a summary about the most important information, mainly about the possible treatment of coronavirus – COVID19. The official data sources can be easily found anywhere online.

What is Coronavirus?

So, first thing first – in December 2019, a novel coronavirus with previously unknown pathogen had an outbreak in Wuhan, a city with 11 million population which causes pneumonia and might result in death. Thousands of people got infected only a few weeks later and months later thousands of deaths due to new type of virus – COVID-19 have been reported all over the world with even more infections. The pathogen is now identified as coronavirus (2019-nCoV) which is very closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV).

What Helps Against COVID-19?

Nowadays, there is not specific treatment against this new type of virus and officially there’s nothing being 100% proven to be 100% efficient against this virus. But with the pandemic as of March 11, 2020, to find an effective antiviral agent in order to combat this viral disease is extremely important. However, when a dangerous new virus outbreaks, the scientists need to spend many months and sometimes even years in order to develop and to test a vaccine that could help. But with all the situations, is not important to find a new vaccine – what’s important is to find anything else that may help against the new virus, this means that patients may be given already existing drugs which could be helpful against COVID-19. That was done and while new medicines are under development, old and existing medicines have been clinically tested – some of which show really big success in fighting the novel coronavirus. Obviously some drugs were proven not effective, others efficiency is still remaining controversial. Among medications that were used we can mention Ribavirin, Interferon, Corticosteroids, Lopinavir – Ritonavir as well as Remdesivir and Cloroquine among many others. As mentioned, at this moment, some drugs’ efficiency is still controversial and some of them are under testing and clinical research, however some of them such as Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir (GS-5734), Lopinavir / Ritonavir does seem to have some success. So far, many tests are only in vitro against clinical isolation of 2019-nCoV because the clinical tests on humans has too little data so far to have a proper conclusion, although experiments done on people still prove that some compounds, like for example, Chloroquine does seem to be really helpful.

More About Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine

Since the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan at the end of December 2019 a lot of tests were done on a lot of various different medications among which we can mention chloroquine (brand name Aralen) and hydroxychloroquine (brand name Plaquenil) which were tested for many weeks and is still having a very high success in proving of being effective against this new virus. In fact, these compounds have been proven to be so helpful that US president Donald Trump and Tesla CEO Elon Musk calls this compound a “game changer” for coronavirus treatment. There are studies that which prove that Chloroquine phosphate or simply Chloroquine has a wide variety of antiviral effects and this includes anti coronavirus too. In the recent studies done it proves that the medication is helping to treat patients diagnosed with the novel coronavirus pneumonia by improving the success rate of the treatment and shortening the hospital stay as well as to improve the patient outcome. The dosage and administration protocol is still discussed and it can be different depending on each patient’s case. There’s also Hydroxychloroquine which has shown an even more efficient result in treating patients with COVID-19. In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of Hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 is showing more results. The compound is having the exact same mechanism of action as Chloroquine, but it does seem to be more tolerable by most people and is a preferred drug for treating malaria and autoimmune conditions. In vitro, Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) has been found to be more potent than Chloroquine (Aralen) in vitro. Although there’s not enough evidence and studies done to supporting that Hydroxychloroquine is indeed perfectly safe and efficient for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2, in vitro tests and few clinical tests on humans do point that it might be a good treatment for coronavirus.

In Search For a Vaccine Against COVID-19

Realistically, it could take many years until a vaccine would be developed. SARS and MERS that have appeared in 2003 and 2012 respectively still do not have any vaccines so there are chances that no new vaccine against COVID-19 is going to appear soon. This is the reason why it looks like finding some old medications for treating COVID-19 have a higher chance.

Hospitals And Novel Coronavirus

People who are in severe situations are given experimental products like Chloroquine and others to give them a chance. But normally, so far, those who are admitted to hospitals are given treatments only for their symptoms but is the person’s own immune system that is fighting off the virus. Hospitalization, is serving for isolating patients and stopping to spread the virus, to treat the symptoms as well as to help severe patients who get pneumonia and can’t breathe naturally. In such cases, their breathing may be supported. They are given oxygen and in the worst cases are being put on a ventilator.

Other Treatments of COVID-2019

Except for Chloroquine (Aralen) and even more helpful – Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) there are other products thought to be helpful. There are even combinations of drugs given as a treatment for COVID-19 such as Chloroquine alongside with Lopinavir and Ritonavir (a HIV medication known as Kaletra by its brand name). HIV drugs such as Lopinavir and Ritonavir are also going through various testing which seem to prove being helpful. But there are many others. For example, another notable medication that should be mentioned as a possible treatment of COVID-19 is Remdesivir. This is an antiviral drug that has been recognized as pretty promising against a wide range of RNA viruses such as SARS/ MERS – CoV including novel Coronavirus. In the end, these seem to be most promising drugs and they do seem to be pretty effective at controlling 2019-nCoV infection in vitro. So far, they are not publicly and officially recognized as being helpful, but they are showing a safety track record and highly effective against various ailments. That’s why they are given to human patients suffering from coronavirus disease as a form of experimental treatment and more tests and experiments are done on these drugs.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41422-020-0282-0
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32075365
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32150618
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51295415
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/01/can-anti-hiv-combination-or-other-existing-drugs-outwit-new-coronavirus
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30183-5/fulltext
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1746980/
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